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Wikipedia page on Social-ecological systems

I was pleasantly surprised to discover that wikipedia has a substantial and good page on the concept of social-ecological system.

Socio-ecological system – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

A socio-ecological system consists of ‘a bio-geo-physical’ unit and its associated social actors and institutions. Socio-ecological systems are complex and adaptive and delimited by spatial or functional boundaries surrounding particular ecosystems and their problem context. [1]

A socio-ecological system can be defined as: [2](p. 163)

  • A coherent system of biophysical and social factors that regularly interact in a resilient, sustained manner;
  • A system that is defined at several spatial, temporal, and organisational scales, which may be hierarchically linked;
  • A set of critical resources (natural, socioeconomic, and cultural) whose flow and use is regulated by a combination of ecological and social systems; and
  • A perpetually dynamic, complex system with continuous adaptation. [3] [4][5]

Scholars have used the concept of socio-ecological systems to emphasise the integrate concept of humans in nature and to stress that the delineation between social systems and ecological systems is artificial and arbitrary. [6] Whilst resilience has somewhat different meaning in social and ecological context [7], the SES approach holds that social and ecological systems are linked through feedback mechanisms, and that both display resilience and complexity. [5]

I urge Resilience Science to go and improve it.
I noticed there are no images.